Saturday, August 1, 2015

On Wearing Supports for Knee Pain

I enjoy the Ask Well column at the New York Times website. It’s well-written and does a nice job of summarizing important research/studies and doesn’t blindly follow the fad of the day. I was intrigued when the idea of knee supports came up for discussion.

My completely unresearched position is that knee supports could make sense. After all, one challenge for a patient is unloading the joint. Wouldn’t a good support do just that?

So I was curious about what this (rather short) column found.

First, the most common, cheaper supports, the elastic sleeves that you tug over your aching joints, probably don’t provide meaningful mechanical support. Which means they don’t work? Not necessarily.

Neoprene sleeves are thought to help by aiding proprioception, according to   Dr. Robert A. Gallo, an associate professor of orthopedic sports medicine. Proprioception is the body’s sense of where it’s positioned in space (interestingly, this ability appears to decay among knee pain sufferers).

We are told:
In theory, improved proprioception around the knee joint could augment knee stability by improving your balance.
Of course there’s another reason why they might work: the placebo effect. The placebo effect can be very powerful. I think it’s behind a lot of glucosamine’s perceived benefits, for example. I’m very skeptical of the glucosamine story, after the supplement did absolutely nothing for me and my research uncovered no reasons why it should have.

But back to knee supports: So let’s say neoprene doesn’t mechanically unload the joint (which isn’t surprising, if you think about it -- that a small piece of synthetic rubber could significantly alter the alignment or movement of a joint that regularly handles loads of your body’s weight plus; it would be kind of like expecting a reed of straw to hold up a brick). What then would help?

What could be useful, Ask Well says, are bulkier braces that really do unload the joint. These are more complex (and expensive) and sort of make you look like a cyborg. These braces have been shown in studies to help people with knee arthritis.

Me, I never used a brace/support. I did try patellar taping. Once that seemed to work really well. And on other occasions it didn’t work at all.

Oh well. Maybe that was the placebo effect too.

Saturday, July 18, 2015

Forbes on Hyaluronic Acid Injections: Don’t Waste Your Money

I found this article by a Forbes writer (who suffers from knee pain) to be a good read.

Readers of this blog may recognize that meta-study he references that’s critical of hyaluronic acid injections. I wrote about it back in July 2012.

I then followed a year later with this post, which in many ways was more interesting, as it deconstructed a counterpoint meta-study that found the injections provided “significant improvement in pain.”

So was it simply a matter of warring meta-studies, with nothing resolved in the end? Well  . . . the second meta-study, it so turned out, was “supported” to some unclear degree by makers of viscosupplements and put out by an “open access” publisher. Lots of funny odors coming off that one.

So is hyaluronic acid -- a kind of synthetic synovial fluid, which is the “oil” that your knee joints need to stay lubricated and easy moving -- a waste of money?

Judging from anecdotal evidence, I don’t know. I’ve read comments from some patients who claim to experience a lessening of symptoms after the procedure. However, the effect of the shots can wear off in as little as three or four weeks. And then, you have other patients who claim that they felt worse after getting the shots.

So it’s kind of a crapshoot. Anyone considering viscosupplementation should look long and hard at the treatment. This is a moneymaker for a number of drug companies, and for doctors who give the injections. Make sure that when they recommend what to do with your knees, they’re looking out for you, and not their own wallets.

Saturday, July 4, 2015

Do Your Knees a Favor and Get Enough Sleep

Here’s a study, the results of which (published in Arthritis Care & Research) surprised me not at all.
Researchers discovered poor sleep habits among people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) appear to increase their sensitivity to pain resulting in an amplification of discomfort.
The study included 208 subjects (72 percent of whom were female). They were split into four groups: osteoarthritis patients with insomnia, OA patients with normal sleep habits, then two control groups of healthy subjects -- half with insomnia, half who slept normally.

The group with knee OA and insomnia had the greatest degree of “central sensitization” -- a condition of the nervous system where pain signals are amplified.

I’ve mentioned before how important getting a good night’s sleep is. I think it does wonders on different levels: It gives your body downtime to mend, puts your legs in a relaxed, non-stressful position, and improves your outlook on life in general.

So if you’re trying to win the knee-pain battle, and you’re not getting eight hours a night (or whatever constitutes a full night of rest for you), maybe you need to rethink your schedule to give yourself enough good, restorative sleep time.

Saturday, June 20, 2015

The Importance of Taking Charge of a Plan to Improve

I’ve written about this before, but I really think a turning point is when people with bad knees take charge of a plan to get better.

With a chronic condition, people often go through the same maddening series of doctor and specialist visits and receive the same unsatisfying answers. Day to day, the symptoms improve a little, then worsen, then improve, then worsen, and on and on. You don’t seem to be going in a particular direction -- except down, though slowly. You feel helpless, like a leaf being tossed about in a tempest.

This is a terrible place to be. It’s where most knee pain sufferers find themselves. Eventually, they say with a shrug, they’ll just get a total knee replacement.

Contrast this with having a goal -- healing your knees and having a plan to get there. It may be a four-month plan. It may be a four-year plan. It may be an eight-year plan. It may be a plan that turns out to have more curves and changes in direction than a mountain switchback road. Still: It’s a plan. There is a goal. That’s better than being a leaf thrown about by a random gust of wind.

To me, this is so important. This is the common thread among all the inspiring success stories I know about beating chronic knee pain. At the center of each is a person who refuses to go quietly into the night and throws himself/herself into some kind of program to improve.

I also believe that taking charge of the plan to heal greatly improves your outlook. Imagine you develop constant, nagging knee pain in March. You see doctors and physical therapists during the year. But they don’t really help and some days you feel better, some days worse. Now, on Dec. 31, as you look forward to a new year and think about your knees, how do you think you feel?

Probably scared. Uncertain. Fearful that your bad knees will just get worse.

But what if, during that same year, you develop a plan to heal. You’re not sure if it’s the right plan -- but it is a plan. Even if you don’t make a whole lot of progress, I think you’re in a different place mentally on Dec. 31. I think you’re more likely to be hopefully strategizing when you consider the year to come. Your thinking may sound like this: “Okay, I didn’t do as well as I had hoped this year. But I know that A, B, and C are definitely bad for my knees. I can’t do exercises D and E, but the bad knees seem to like F. So I’ll start on a program of G, increasing the repetitions about 10 percent every two weeks, then see where I am by the end of March. If this doesn’t work, I can always try H and I.”

The plan doesn’t need to be of your own devising. A smart physical therapist may help you design it. But you should understand it, own it, be committed to it -- and be willing to change it as soon as you can tell it’s not working. And then you should try something different. The path to healing is not straight, it’s not easy, but I’m convinced there is one.

Saturday, June 6, 2015

Knee Studies That Make Me Nervous

A lot of articles about knee pain studies land in my e-mail inbox. Recently I came across one with this provocative title:

Osteoarthritis Patients Will Benefit From Jumping Exercise

The English is a bit shaky in spots (perhaps it was translated?), but the findings are clear enough:
Progressive high-impact training improved the patellar cartilage quality of postmenopausal women who may be at risk of osteoporosis (bone loss).
Specifically, 80 women from 50 to 65 years old, who also had knee pain, participated in this Finnish study. They all had “mild knee OA,” it’s important to note. One set of subjects underwent a “supervised progressive high-impact exercise program” three times a week for 12 months. The quality of their patellar cartilage (which is located under the kneecap) improved with jumping and exercises that required “versatile rapid movements.”

Jump for better knee health! Uh, yeah sure ...

Jumping around with bad knees is not the first thing I would do. What we don’t know here is significant, I suspect. That “mild OA” may correlate with milder knee pain and minor damage, which makes more vigorous activities possible. I know plenty of regular readers of this blog who would shudder at the idea of “jumping” their way to knee health; their pain is brought on by much less strenuous exercises.

Also, it’s hard to tell what “supervised progressive high-impact exercises” means, but “supervised” and “progressive” suggest that subjects with bad knees weren’t cut loose to do jumping jacks during the first week.

My takeaway from this study is probably different from what the authors intended. I’m far from sold on advising knee pain patients to engage in jumping activities to improve their kneecap cartilage. I bet there are less impactful activities that would achieve the same end. However, if you’ve got good knees, exercises that stress your cartilage such as those that involve a reasonable amount of jumping are probably a good idea. They can help you develop stronger joints and ward off problems in the future.

An ounce of prevention!

Saturday, May 23, 2015

If Your Knees Heal, How Do You Go Back to Doing the Sports You Love?

Someone reached out to me recently, asking (basically) the question above.

It’s a very good one. After I got better, my brother said that if he were me, he wouldn’t go back to the intense cycling I enjoy so much. Yet I did. And so far, my knees have been fine.

Was I foolish to do so?

I don’t think so. Here’s why:

* You should never go back to doing exactly what you were doing that caused the knee injury. That seems kind of stupid. For instance, if you decide to train by jumping off the roof of your shed, then springing up and running three miles, and you hurt your knees one day jumping off the shed -- why the heck would you keep doing that after your knees healed? :)

Or, in my case: I was cycling up steep hills, doing short sprints on those climbs, all while dehydrated -- and doing this back-to-back on Saturday and Sunday mornings. Would I do that again? Nope. I wouldn’t sprint uphill. I would carry more water. I wouldn’t do a max effort on Saturday and try to do a max effort again on Sunday.

* You have to get smarter in general. I still ride really, really hard. But I’m smarter about making sure I warm up properly. And in temperatures below 55 degrees, I always put on knee warmers (sleeves that cover the knees and a bit of the legs). Always.

Being smarter doesn’t mean I can’t charge up the hill with the rest of the pack on a ride. It does mean that I’m more careful about exercising in a knee-friendly way.

* I still listen carefully to my knees. There isn’t much to listen to now, thankfully. But I’m ever alert to early warning signs. If my joints started getting really noisy and crunchy again, you better believe I’d modify my behavior.

Knowing how to listen to your knees is especially important if you return to the activity that injured them in the first place. You don’t want to be grounded with chronic knee pain again. One reason you may not be is because you know what the danger signs are that you ignored the first time around. The key is not to do so the second time.

Saturday, May 9, 2015

The Fine Art of Playing Medical Detective

If nothing else, I hope one message in my book is crystal clear: You have to get involved in fixing your knees.

Why? Here are three reasons: (1) Your particular problem has a particular solution; what worked perfectly for me (or someone else) probably won’t be exactly what you need. (2) A doctor or other medical professional trying to advise you will never gain as complete an understanding of your symptoms as you have, even if he spent five hours with you. You ultimately know better what you can and can’t do. (3) You need to be able to monitor and adjust your rehabilitation program in real time and your orthopedic doctor won’t be on call, 24/7, for every small question you have.

Part of getting more involved in fixing your knees means honing your skills at playing medical detective. Think of your evolving symptoms as a nonstop “Who dunnit?” (or “What dunnit?” may be more apt). If you want to avoid pain/flare-ups of symptoms, avoid doing the thing that triggers them. (Note: Believe me, I realize sorting out cause and effect isn’t always easy, especially when there are renegade inflammatory processes in the mix.)

The good thing is, once you develop “medical detective” skills, they’ll come in handy. In my case, they helped me solve (and heal) a couple of mysterious injuries in the past few years.

The Case of the Sore Index Finger:

This was a strange injury that kind of crept up on me. Quite simply, I began noticing my left index finger was sore, in the joint nearest the fingernail. Whenever I I pressed down on something with my fingertip, the joint would hurt.

What the heck? Was I just getting old, I wondered. Maybe starting to develop some arthritis?

But then I started thinking. “Hmm. Why is this joint -- and only this joint -- sore?” My right index finger was fine. Then I discovered something: The joint was being strangled twice a day. And I was responsible!

What I figured out was that, for my twice-a-day flossing, I was wrapping one end of the string around -- you guessed it -- the last joint of my index finger. I didn’t notice any pain or discomfort while flossing, but the soreness was evident later.

After realizing this, I started wrapping the floss away from the joint. Today my index finger is perfectly fine again.

The Case of the Sore Thumb

More recently, I had a problem with soreness around the base of my thumb joint. It was a nagging minor pain. As with the index finger, I couldn’t recall precisely when the pain began, or an injury that may have precipitated it.

Again I wondered: What’s going on? Is this age-related?

Well, I knew age hadn’t been the issue with my index finger, so once more, I began paying close attention to the unnatural forces on that thumb. And I found one -- but it was so minor I couldn’t believe it was the culprit.

I wear a backpack to work -- except usually it’s not on my back. I sling it over my right shoulder. And I caught myself, more than once, absent-mindedly pressing my thumb against the strap, stretching the digit back.

That can’t be what’s to blame, I thought. How can a little thing like that cause a problem? Still, I made myself stop pressing my thumb against that strap when I walked with my backpack.

And the pain went away.

The funny thing is, had I gone to a doctor for either of these problems, I probably would not have gotten a helpful analysis or solution. It’s not his fault; I wasn’t doing anything obvious that was causing either of these two joints to be sore. Further, a doctor might have put me in that “old guy” box (“You’re on the wrong side of 50; it’s just some inflammation that may eventually become arthritis; if it really bothers you, I can write a prescription for some pills.”)

But the cool thing is, I managed to figure it out by myself. And I got better. I’ll take that outcome any time.

Update: Oops, I see that this post is open to misinterpretation. My fault. To be clear: I don’t mean to imply that you don’t need doctors or physical therapists at all. I don’t mean to imply that you’re your own best doctor (in the end, you may be, but please don’t start out with that assumption).

I do believe that you need to get involved in helping solve the mystery of your knee pain. In other words, don’t go to a professional when you have chronic, hard-to-treat pain and expect to be handed a perfect solution on a silver platter. This goes to the heart of one of my beefs with people today: I think they look too often to the quick, easy, other-provided solution: a pill, a surgical operation, 35 leg lifts at dawn every other day, etc.

Here is why I would always start my knee pain journey with doctors and physical therapists: (1) They’re usually pretty smart people and good, careful thinkers. (2) They have extensive training and a broad understanding of a human body’s biomechanics that I’m betting you don’t have. (3) They have experience treating bad knees just like yours. (4) They (doctors anyway) have access to diagnostic equipment that can help shed light on what’s going on with your bad knee(s).

The first step to fixing a bad knee is figuring out what’s wrong with it!

Ah, but what if they don’t find anything? This is where things get more complex. If your doctor shrugs and basically says, “You’re getting old and your knees are just wearing out” -- well, that’s not too helpful. So here are my main complaints about many doctors and physical therapists: (1) They’re too fixated (physical therapists especially) on this idea that if your knees hurt, the underlying cause must be an imbalance/crookedness. (2) They’re too pessimistic (doctors) about the prospects of your knees getting better. (3) The exercise routines they prescribe (physical therapists) are usually too hard because they focus on muscles when they need to focus on joints. (4) They don’t work hard enough to help you craft a sensible, go-slow program to improve.

But -- and here comes a huge but -- this isn’t always true. Celebrate when you find a good physical therapist (I believe they can save you; a doctor’s usefulness tends to be limited after he shrugs and says “I can’t find anything wrong, so just try not to aggravate the joint.") A smart, patient, dedicated physical therapist is worth his or her weight in gold. I said that in the book, because I really believe it’s true. Just be careful: A bad physical therapist can mess up your knees really, really fast.

Finally: a nod to Doug Kelsey who is hands down the best physical therapist I know of (disclosure: I base that solely on his writings; I’ve never been a patient of his). He wrote a great book here. If you want good insight into chronic knee pain and illustrated exercises that will help you get better, check it out.